Imagine living in Athens and have this as your view. Stunning, don't you think? Of course perhaps to most Athenians this is all 'old hat' and they don't give it a second thought (or look) and mostly just resent all the camera toting tourists who must flood the city every summer?
That's the Acropolis you see on the far horizon overlooking the city. And the famous building is the Parthenon, or the Temple of Athena, who is the goddess of wisdom, war, divine intelligence as well as architecture and crafts. She's the city's patron and gave her name to it. Athens must just ooze history and culture.
To the Northwest of the Acropolis is the Ancient Agora, which is where this Temple of Hephaestos is located. The Agora would have been an important meeting place for the people of Athens both politically and socially. Hephaestus is the patron god of metal working and craftsmanship. This temple is apparently very well preserved and stands much as it did when it was built. There is something very awe inspiring to think of the history these stones have observed, particularly since it was built around 449 BC.
I wasn't sure what this building housed as there is no description on the card, but I believe it is the Old Royal Palace and is now the Hellenic Parliament. By the way--just a little piece of trivia--they have a unicameral legislature. I live in Nebraska, which is the only US state that has a unicameral legislature. Anyway, the building looks sort of small in the postcard, but if you click through the link and look at the Wikipedia photo (click to enlarge it) it is massive building!
I'm afraid I'm not going to be any help with the stamps as I can't read the Greek, but they appear to be folk dancers wearing traditional costumes.
Many thanks to Anna for swapping!